Home Diseases ACL injury Symptoms knee: Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

ACL injury Symptoms knee: Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

by @dmin@
ACL injury symptoms knee: Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is among the four primary ligaments responsible for stabilizing the knee joint. It connects the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone) and prevents the tibia from sliding forward relative to the femur. The ACL also helps control the rotational movements of the knee.

The ACL is essential for maintaining knee stability, especially during activities that involve sudden changes in direction, such as running, jumping, cutting, and pivoting. However, the ACL is also prone to injury, especially in sports that involve these types of movements. ACL injuries are among the most common and serious knee injuries, affecting millions of people worldwide every year.

acl injury symptoms knee

What Causes ACL Injuries?

ACL injuries can occur due to two main mechanisms: non-contact and contact. Non-contact injuries happen when the ACL tears without any direct impact to the knee, usually as a result of an awkward landing, a sudden stop, a rapid change in direction, or a hyperextension of the knee. Contact injuries happen when the ACL tears due to a direct blow to the knee, such as a collision with another player or an object. ACL injury

Some of the common activities that can lead to ACL injuries are:

  • Soccer
  • Basketball
  • Football
  • Skiing
  • Tennis
  • Volleyball
  • Gymnastics
  • Martial arts

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of ACL Injuries?

The signs and symptoms of an ACL injury may vary depending on the severity and type of the tear. However, some of the common signs and symptoms are:

  • Acute pain at the time of injury, often described as a sharp or intense pain in the front or inner side of the knee
  • Swelling and inflammation of the knee, usually within the first 24 hours after the injury
  • Limited range of motion of the knee, especially in bending and straightening the leg
  • Instability and a feeling of the knee “giving way” or buckling, especially when trying to walk, run, or change direction
  • Audible popping sound during the injury, which may indicate a complete tear of the ligament

How Are ACL Injuries Diagnosed?

The diagnosis of an ACL injury is based on a combination of physical examination, imaging techniques, and clinical tests. A physical examination by a healthcare professional can help assess the extent of the injury, the presence of other associated injuries, and the general condition of the knee. Imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-rays, can help confirm the diagnosis and rule out other possible causes of knee pain, such as fractures, meniscus tears, or cartilage damage. Clinical tests, such as the Lachman test and the pivot shift test, can help evaluate the stability of the knee and the integrity of the ACL. ACL injury

The Lachman test is performed by placing one hand on the thigh and the other on the shin, and then pulling the shin forward while the thigh is stabilized. A positive Lachman test indicates a significant laxity or looseness of the knee joint, which suggests an ACL tear. The pivot shift test is performed by bending the knee and then applying a gentle inward rotation and a downward force to the lower leg. A positive pivot shift test indicates a sudden shift or clunk of the knee joint, which suggests an ACL tear.

How Are ACL Injuries Classified?

ACL injuries are classified according to the degree of damage to the ligament. The grading system is as follows:

  • Grade I: A mild sprain or stretch of the ACL, with no significant laxity or instability of the knee joint
  • Grade II: A partial tear of the ACL, with some laxity or instability of the knee joint
  • Grade III: A complete tear or rupture of the ACL, with significant laxity or instability of the knee joint

A partial tear of the ACL may heal with conservative management, while a complete tear of the ACL usually requires surgical intervention. ACL injury

What Are the Treatment Options for ACL Injuries?

The treatment options for ACL injuries depend on several factors, such as the severity and type of the injury, the age and activity level of the patient, the presence of other associated injuries, and the patient’s preferences and goals. The main treatment options are:

  • Conservative management: This involves resting the injured knee, applying ice to reduce swelling and pain, compressing the knee with a bandage or a brace to provide support and stability, and elevating the leg to improve blood circulation and reduce inflammation. Conservative management also includes physical therapy and rehabilitation exercises to restore the strength, flexibility, and function of the knee. Conservative management may be sufficient for patients with mild or partial ACL injuries, or for patients who have low physical demands and do not participate in high-risk activities. ACL injury
  • Surgical intervention: This involves reconstructing the torn ACL with a graft, which is a piece of tissue taken from another part of the body (usually the hamstring, the patellar tendon, or the quadriceps tendon) or from a donor. The graft is inserted into the knee through small incisions and secured with screws or other devices. Surgical intervention is usually recommended for patients with complete ACL tears, or for patients who have high physical demands and participate in high-risk activities. Surgical intervention can help restore the stability and function of the knee, and prevent further damage to the cartilage and other structures of the knee. ACL injury

What Is the Recovery Process for ACL Injuries?

The recovery process for ACL injuries varies depending on the treatment option chosen, the type and severity of the injury, the patient’s age and health status, and the patient’s adherence to the rehabilitation protocols. However, some general guidelines are:

  • Post-surgery rehabilitation: After the surgery, the patient will need to wear a brace and use crutches to protect the knee and allow the graft to heal. The patient will also need to follow a rehabilitation program that consists of exercises to improve the range of motion, strength, balance, and coordination of the knee. The rehabilitation program will progress gradually from simple to complex exercises, and from low to high intensity activities. The rehabilitation program may last from six to 12 months, depending on the patient’s progress and goals.
  • Expected timelines for recovery: The recovery time for ACL injuries depends on several factors, such as the type and severity of the injury, the treatment option chosen, the patient’s age and health status, and the patient’s adherence to the rehabilitation protocols. ACL injury

Anatomy of the Knee

The knee constitutes the most sizable and intricate joint within the human body. It consists of three bones: the femur, the tibia, and the patella (kneecap). The knee joint is supported by four ligaments: the ACL, the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), the medial collateral ligament (MCL), and the lateral collateral ligament (LCL). These ligaments connect the bones and provide stability to the knee. The knee joint also has two menisci, which are crescent-shaped pieces of cartilage that act as shock absorbers and cushion the joint. The knee joint is surrounded by a capsule that contains synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint and reduces friction. The knee joint is also attached to several muscles and tendons that enable movement and provide strength to the knee. ACL injury

The ACL is located in the center of the knee, behind the patella. It courses diagonally from the posterior aspect of the femur to the anterior aspect of the tibia. The ACL has two bundles of fibers: the anteromedial bundle and the posterolateral bundle. The anteromedial bundle is tighter when the knee is bent, while the posterolateral bundle is tighter when the knee is straight. The ACL works together with the PCL to prevent the tibia from sliding too far forward or backward in relation to the femur. The ACL also helps control the rotation of the knee and the side-to-side movement of the lower leg. ACL injury

The ACL is vital for the normal function of the knee, especially during activities that require stability, agility, and coordination. The ACL allows the knee to withstand the forces and stresses that are generated during these activities. However, the ACL is also vulnerable to injury, especially when the knee is subjected to excessive or abnormal forces or movements.

acl injury symptoms knee
Image Source: freepik

ACL Injury Mechanisms

ACL injuries can occur in different ways, depending on the type and intensity of the activity, the position and movement of the knee, and the external factors that affect the knee. ACL injuries can be classified into two categories: non-contact and contact injuries. ACL injury

Non-contact injuries are the most common type of ACL injuries, accounting for about 70% of all cases. Non-contact injuries occur when the ACL is overstretched or torn by the forces that are generated within the knee, without any direct contact or collision with another person or object. Non-contact injuries typically happen during activities that involve sudden changes in direction, deceleration, landing, or pivoting. For example, a soccer player may injure their ACL when they try to cut or turn quickly, a basketball player may injure their ACL when they land awkwardly after a jump, or a skier may injure their ACL when they twist their knee while falling. ACL injury

Contact injuries are less common than non-contact injuries, accounting for about 30% of all cases. Contact injuries occur when the ACL is damaged by the forces that are transmitted to the knee from an external source, such as another person or object. Contact injuries typically happen during activities that involve direct blows or collisions to the knee. For example, a football player may injure their ACL when they are tackled from the side, a hockey player may injure their ACL when they are hit by a stick or a puck, or a car driver may injure their ACL when they are involved in a crash. ACL injury

Some of the common activities that can lead to ACL injuries are:

  • Soccer
  • Basketball
  • Football
  • Skiing
  • Volleyball
  • Tennis
  • Rugby
  • Martial arts
  • Gymnastics
  • Running
  • Dancing

Signs and Symptoms of ACL Injuries

The signs and symptoms of ACL injuries may vary depending on the severity and extent of the injury, as well as the individual’s pain tolerance and reaction. However, some of the common signs and symptoms of ACL injuries are:

  • Acute pain at the time of injury. The pain is usually felt in the front or the back of the knee, and it may radiate to the thigh or the calf. The pain may be severe enough to prevent the person from continuing the activity or bearing weight on the injured leg. ACL injury
  • Swelling and inflammation. The knee may swell up within a few hours or days after the injury, due to the accumulation of blood and fluid in the joint. The swelling may cause the knee to feel warm, tender, and stiff.
  • Limited range of motion. The knee may lose some of its ability to bend and straighten, due to the pain, swelling, and damage to the ligament and other structures. The person may have difficulty walking, squatting, kneeling, or climbing stairs.
  • Uneasiness and a sensation of the knee “losing support” The knee may feel loose, unstable, or wobbly, due to the loss of support and stability from the ligament. The person may have a sensation of the knee buckling, slipping, or collapsing, especially when changing direction, turning, or stopping. The person may also have difficulty maintaining balance and coordination. ACL injury
  • Audible popping sound during injury. The person may hear or feel a pop or a snap in the knee at the moment of injury, due to the tearing of the ligament fibers. However, not all ACL injuries are accompanied by a popping sound, and not all popping sounds indicate an ACL injury. ACL injury

Diagnostic Procedures

The diagnosis of ACL injuries is based on a combination of the person’s medical history, physical examination, and imaging techniques. The diagnostic procedures may include:

  • Physical examination by a healthcare professional. The healthcare professional will ask the person about the details of the injury, such as how, when, and where it happened, what the person was doing, and what the person felt and heard. The healthcare professional will also examine the person’s knee, looking for signs of swelling, tenderness, bruising, and deformity. The healthcare professional will also perform some tests to assess the stability and function of the knee, such as the Lachman test and the pivot shift test. The Lachman test involves pulling the tibia forward while the knee is slightly bent, to check for excessive movement or laxity. The pivot shift test involves rotating the lower leg inward while the knee is straightened, to check for abnormal shifting or subluxation of the joint. ACL injury
  • Imaging techniques (MRI, X-rays). The healthcare professional may order some imaging tests to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other possible causes of knee pain, such as fractures, dislocations, or meniscus tears. The most commonly used imaging technique for ACL injuries is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which can provide detailed images of the soft tissues and structures of the knee, such as the ligaments, cartilage, and menisci. MRI can also show the extent and location of the ACL tear, as well as any associated injuries to other structures. X-rays are less useful for diagnosing ACL injuries, as they can only show the bones and not the soft tissues. However, X-rays may be used to detect any bone fractures or abnormalities that may be present. ACL injury

Classification of ACL Injuries

ACL injuries can be classified according to the severity and extent of the damage to the ligament. The most widely used classification system is the grading system, which divides ACL injuries into three grades:

  • Grade I: The ACL is mildly stretched or sprained, but not torn. The knee is still stable and functional but may be slightly painful and swollen.
  • Grade II: The ACL is partially torn, but not completely severed. The knee is moderately unstable and dysfunctional and may be more painful and swollen.
  • Grade III: The ACL is completely torn or ruptured, and the two ends of the ligament are separated. The knee is severely unstable and dysfunctional and may be very painful and swollen. ACL injury

Another way to classify ACL injuries is by the type of tear, which can be either partial or complete:

  • Partial tear: The ACL is torn partially, but some of the ligament fibers are still intact and connected. The knee may have some degree of stability and function, depending on the amount and location of the tear.
  • Complete tear: The ACL is torn completely, and none of the ligament fibers are intact or connected. The knee has no stability or function and relies on other structures for support.

Treatment Options

The treatment options for ACL injuries depend on several factors, such as the severity and type of the injury, the age and activity level of the person, the goals and expectations of the person, and the presence of any other injuries or conditions. The treatment options can be broadly divided into two categories: conservative management and surgical intervention.

Conservative management involves treating the

injury with non-surgical methods, such as rest, ice, compression, elevation, painkillers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and braces. Conservative management also involves physical therapy and rehabilitation exercises, which aim to restore the strength, flexibility, and function of the knee, as well as prevent further damage and complications. Conservative management may be suitable for people who have mild or partial ACL injuries, who are older or less active, who do not participate in high-risk or high-demand activities, or who do not wish to undergo surgery.

Surgical intervention involves repairing or reconstructing the torn ACL with a graft, which is a piece of tissue taken from another part of the body (autograft) or from a donor (allograft). The graft is inserted into the knee through small incisions, and attached to the femur and the tibia with screws or other devices. The surgery is usually performed with the help of an arthroscope, which is a thin, flexible tube with a camera and a light at the end, that allows the surgeon to see inside the joint. Surgical intervention may be suitable for people who have complete or severe ACL injuries, who are younger or more active, who participate in high-risk or high-demand activities, or who have persistent instability or symptoms despite conservative management.

Recovery Process

The recovery process after an ACL injury varies depending on the type and severity of the injury, the treatment option chosen, and the individual’s response and adherence to the rehabilitation program. The recovery process can be divided into several phases, each with different goals and activities.

  • Phase 1: Acute phase. This phase lasts for about 2 to 4 weeks after the injury or the surgery, and the main goals are to reduce the pain, swelling, and inflammation, to protect the knee from further damage, and to restore some of the range of motion and function of the knee. The activities in this phase include rest, ice, compression, elevation, painkillers, anti-inflammatory drugs, braces, crutches, and gentle exercises, such as ankle pumps, quad sets, and straight leg raises.
  • Phase 2: Subacute phase. This phase lasts for about 4 to 12 weeks after the injury or the surgery, and the main goals are to increase the range of motion and strength of the knee, to improve the stability and balance of the knee, and to prepare the knee for more advanced activities. The activities in this phase include physical therapy, rehabilitation exercises, and functional training, such as cycling, swimming, walking, jogging, and stair climbing.
  • Phase 3: Advanced phase. This phase lasts for about 3 to 6 months after the injury or the surgery, and the main goals are to restore the full range of motion and strength of the knee, to enhance the agility and coordination of the knee, and to resume normal activities of daily living. The activities in this phase include physical therapy, rehabilitation exercises, and functional training, such as running, jumping, cutting, pivoting, and sport-specific drills.
  • Phase 4: Return to sport phase. This phase lasts for about 6 to 12 months after the injury or the surgery, and the main goal is to return to the pre-injury level of sports performance and participation. The activities in this phase include physical therapy, rehabilitation exercises, functional training, and sport-specific training, such as sprinting, changing direction, landing, and competing.

The expected timelines for recovery may vary depending on the individual’s age, health, activity level, and compliance with the rehabilitation program. However, some general guidelines are:

  • For non-surgical treatment, the recovery time may range from 6 to 12 weeks, depending on the severity of the injury and the response to conservative management.
  • For surgical treatment, the recovery time may range from 6 to 12 months, depending on the type of graft used, the presence of any other injuries or complications, and the response to the surgical intervention and the rehabilitation program.

The recovery process after an ACL injury requires patience, perseverance, and dedication, as it can be a long and challenging journey. The recovery process also requires close supervision and guidance from healthcare professionals, such as the surgeon, the physical therapist, and the athletic trainer, who can monitor the progress and provide feedback and advice. The recovery process also requires active participation and involvement from the person, who can follow the instructions and recommendations, perform the exercises and activities, and report any problems or concerns.

The recovery process after an ACL injury is crucial for the optimal outcome and the long-term health and function of the knee. The recovery process can help prevent further damage and complications, such as chronic instability, recurrent injuries, or osteoarthritis. The recovery process can also help restore the confidence and satisfaction of the person, who can return to their normal activities and enjoy their life.

Prevention Strategies

The prevention of ACL injuries is important for the health and well-being of people who are involved in sports and physical activities, especially those that involve high-risk or high-demand movements, such as soccer, basketball, football, skiing, or volleyball. The prevention of ACL injuries can also help reduce the personal and social costs of these injuries, such as medical expenses, time off work or school, loss of productivity, and emotional distress.

The prevention of ACL injuries can be achieved by implementing some strategies, such as:

  • Strengthening exercises for the knee. These exercises can help improve the strength and endurance of the muscles that support and stabilize the knee, such as the quadriceps, the hamstrings, the gluteus, and the calf muscles. Stronger muscles can help absorb and distribute the forces and stresses that are applied to the knee, and reduce the strain and load on the ligament. Strengthening exercises can also help correct any muscle imbalances or weaknesses that may predispose the knee to injury. Strengthening exercises can be performed with or without weights, bands, or machines, and they can include squats, lunges, leg presses, leg curls, leg extensions, and calf raises.
  • Neuromuscular training programs. These programs can help improve the neuromuscular control and coordination of the knee, which is the ability of the brain, the nerves, and the muscles to work together to produce and regulate the movements of the knee. Neuromuscular control and coordination can help prevent the knee from moving in abnormal or excessive ways that may injure the ligament. Neuromuscular training programs can also help improve the proprioception and the balance of the knee, which is the awareness and the adjustment of the position and the motion of the knee. Proprioception and balance can help prevent the knee from losing stability and alignment, especially during dynamic and unpredictable activities. Neuromuscular training programs can include exercises and activities that challenge and stimulate the neuromuscular system, such as plyometrics, agility drills, balance boards, and wobble discs.
  • Techniques for reducing the risk of ACL injuries. These techniques can help modify the behavior and the habits of the people who are involved in sports and physical activities, and teach them how to perform the movements and the skills that are associated with a lower risk of ACL injuries. These techniques can include:
    • Learning how to land properly, with the knees bent, the feet shoulder-width apart, and the body weight evenly distributed.
    • Learning how to change direction smoothly, with the knees aligned with the hips and the feet, and the body weight shifted gradually and controlled.
    • Learning how to stop safely, with the knees bent, the feet planted firmly, and the body weight balanced and stable.
    • Learning how to pivot correctly, with the knees flexed, the feet pivoting on the balls, and the body rotating as a unit.
    • Learning how to avoid or minimize contact or collision with other players or objects, by being aware of the surroundings, anticipating the actions, and using protective equipment.

The prevention of ACL injuries can be enhanced by incorporating these strategies into the regular training and practice sessions, and by performing them consistently and correctly. The prevention of ACL injuries can also be facilitated by the involvement and support of the coaches, the trainers, the teammates, and the family members, who can provide instruction, feedback, encouragement, and motivation.

The prevention of ACL injuries can have significant benefits for people who are involved in sports and physical activities, as it can help them avoid the pain, the disability, and the complications that are associated with these injuries. The prevention of ACL injuries can also help them maintain their performance, their participation, and their enjoyment of their activities.

Complications and Long-term Effects

ACL injuries can have some complications and long-term effects, both physical and psychological, that can affect the quality of life and the well-being of the people who suffer from these injuries. Some of the complications and long-term effects of ACL injuries are:

  • Risk of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition that affects the cartilage and the bones of the joints, causing pain, stiffness, swelling, and reduced function. Osteoarthritis is more common and more severe in people who have had an ACL injury, especially if the injury is not treated properly or promptly, or if the injury is accompanied by other damage to the joint, such as meniscus tears or bone bruises. Osteoarthritis can develop as early as 10 years after the injury, and it can affect the ability and the desire of the person to engage in physical activities and sports.
  • Impact on sports and physical activities. ACL injuries can have a negative impact on the performance, participation, and enjoyment of sports and physical activities, especially those that involve high-risk or high-demand movements, such as soccer, basketball, football, skiing, or volleyball. ACL injuries can impair the function and the stability of the knee, and limit the range of motion and the strength of the knee. ACL injuries can also increase the risk of re-injury or injury to the other knee, and reduce the confidence and satisfaction of the person. ACL injuries can also affect the career and the future of the person, especially if they are a professional or aspiring athlete.
  • Psychological aspects of recovering from an ACL injury. ACL injuries can have a psychological impact on the person, affecting their mood, their emotions, their thoughts, and their behavior. ACL injuries can cause stress, anxiety, depression, anger, frustration, fear, and isolation, especially during the acute and the subacute phases of the recovery process, when the person is experiencing pain, swelling, and disability, and when the person is unable to perform their normal activities and roles. ACL injuries can also affect the self-esteem, the self-image, the self-efficacy, and the identity of the person, especially during the advanced and the return to sport phases of the recovery process, when the person is facing challenges and uncertainties, and when the person is comparing themselves to their pre-injury level or to others. ACL injuries can also affect the social and interpersonal relationships of the person, such as their family, their friends, their teammates, and their coaches, who may have different expectations, opinions, and attitudes towards the injury and the recovery process.

The complications and long-term effects of ACL injuries can be prevented or minimized by seeking early and

appropriate treatment and rehabilitation, following the instructions and recommendations of the healthcare professionals, performing the exercises and activities regularly and correctly, and monitoring the progress and the outcome of the recovery process. The complications and long-term effects of ACL injuries can also be alleviated or managed by seeking psychological and emotional support, coping with the stress and the challenges of the recovery process, maintaining a positive and optimistic attitude, and setting realistic and achievable goals.

Conclusion

ACL injuries are common and serious injuries that affect the knee joint, especially in people who are involved in sports and physical activities that involve high-risk or high-demand movements, such as soccer, basketball, football, skiing, or volleyball. ACL injuries can cause pain, swelling, instability, and dysfunction of the knee, and they can have significant physical and psychological consequences for the person. ACL injuries can be diagnosed by a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging techniques, and they can be classified according to the severity and type of the injury. ACL injuries can be treated by conservative management or surgical intervention, depending on the individual’s factors and preferences. ACL injuries require a long and challenging recovery process, which involves several phases, goals, and activities. ACL injuries can be prevented by implementing some strategies, such as strengthening exercises, neuromuscular training programs, and techniques for reducing the risk of ACL injuries. ACL injuries can have some complications and long-term effects, such as osteoarthritis, impact on sports and physical activities, and psychological aspects of recovering from an ACL injury.

ACL injuries are important to understand and address, as they can affect the health and well-being of the people who suffer from them. ACL injuries can also affect the performance, participation, and enjoyment of sports and physical activities, which are essential for the physical and mental health of people. By knowing the causes, the diagnosis, the treatment, the recovery, the prevention, and the complications of ACL injuries, people can take better care of their knees, and prevent or minimize the negative impact of these injuries on their lives.

FAQ

  • What is the ACL?
    • The ACL is the anterior cruciate ligament, one of the four major ligaments that stabilize the knee joint. It connects the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone) and prevents the tibia from sliding forward too much. It also helps control the rotation and the side-to-side movement of the knee.
  • How does an ACL injury happen?
    • An ACL injury can happen in different ways, depending on the type and intensity of the activity, the position and movement of the knee, and the external factors that affect the knee. An ACL injury can be either non-contact or contact. A non-contact injury occurs when the ACL is overstretched or torn by the forces that are generated within the knee, without any direct contact or collision with another person or object. A contact injury occurs when the ACL is damaged by the forces that are transmitted to the knee from an external source, such as another person or object.
  • What are the signs and symptoms of an ACL injury?
    • The signs and symptoms of an ACL injury may vary depending on the severity and extent of the injury, as well as the individual’s pain tolerance and reaction. However, some of the common signs and symptoms of an ACL injury are acute pain at the time of injury, swelling and inflammation, limited range of motion, instability and a feeling of the knee “giving way”, and audible popping sound during injury.
  • How is an ACL injury diagnosed?
    • An ACL injury is diagnosed by a combination of the person’s medical history, physical examination, and imaging techniques. The medical history involves asking the person about the details of the injury, such as how, when, and where it happened, what the person was doing, and what the person felt and heard. The physical examination involves examining the person’s knee, looking for signs of swelling, tenderness, bruising, and deformity, and performing some tests to assess the stability and function of the knee, such as the Lachman test and the pivot shift test. The imaging techniques involve ordering some imaging tests to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other possible causes of knee pain, such as fractures, dislocations, or meniscus tears. The most commonly used imaging technique for ACL injuries is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which can provide detailed images of the soft tissues and structures of the knee, such as the ligaments, cartilage, and menisci. MRI can also show the extent and location of the ACL tear, as well as any associated injuries to other structures. X-rays are less useful for diagnosing ACL injuries, as they can only show the bones and not the soft tissues. However, X-rays may be used to detect any bone fractures or abnormalities that may be present.
  • How is an ACL injury treated?
    • An ACL injury can be treated by conservative management or surgical intervention, depending on the individual’s factors and preferences. Conservative management involves treating the injury with non-surgical methods, such as rest, ice, compression, elevation, painkillers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and braces. Conservative management also involves physical therapy and rehabilitation exercises, which aim to restore the strength, flexibility, and function of the knee, as well as prevent further damage and complications. Conservative management may be suitable for people who have mild or partial ACL injuries, who are older or less active, who do not participate in high-risk or high-demand activities, or who do not wish to undergo surgery. Surgical intervention involves repairing or reconstructing the torn ACL with a graft, which is a piece of tissue taken from another part of the body (autograft) or from a donor (allograft). The graft is inserted into the knee through small incisions, and attached to the femur and the tibia with screws or other devices. The surgery is usually performed with the help of an arthroscope, which is a thin, flexible tube with a camera and a light at the end, that allows the surgeon to see inside the joint. Surgical intervention may be suitable for people who have complete or severe ACL injuries, who are younger or more active, who participate in high-risk or high-demand activities, or who have persistent instability or symptoms despite conservative management.

Important Notice:

The information provided on “health life ai” is intended for informational purposes only. While we have made efforts to ensure the accuracy and authenticity of the information presented, we cannot guarantee its absolute correctness or completeness. Before applying any of the strategies or tips, please consult a professional medical adviser.

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