Home Health A – ZA What Are Amino Acids? Types, Effects, Benefits, and Food Sources

What Are Amino Acids? Types, Effects, Benefits, and Food Sources

by @dmin@
What Are Amino Acids? Types, Effects, Benefits, and Food Sources

Introduction

Amino acids are organic compounds that contain an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH). They are the basic units of proteins, which are essential for many biological processes in living organisms. Amino acids can be classified into two types: essential and non-essential. Essential amino acids are those that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from the diet. Non-essential amino acids are those that can be produced by the body from other sources.

Amino acids play a vital role in various biological processes, such as:

  • Protein synthesis: Amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds to form long chains called polypeptides, which fold into specific shapes to form proteins. Proteins are involved in many functions, such as catalyzing chemical reactions, transporting molecules, regulating gene expression, and providing structural support.
  • Metabolism: Amino acids are involved in the breakdown and synthesis of various molecules, such as carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. They also serve as precursors for other important biomolecules, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and coenzymes.
  • Immune system: Amino acids are essential for the production of antibodies, which are proteins that recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. They also help to modulate the inflammatory response and the activation of immune cells.

What Are Amino Acids Made Of

Amino acids are composed of four main elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. They have a general formula of R-CH(NH2)-COOH, where R is a variable side chain that determines the properties and functions of each amino acid. There are 20 common amino acids found in proteins, each with a unique side chain that ranges from a simple hydrogen atom to a complex ring structure.

The structure of amino acids can be divided into two parts: the backbone and the side chain. The backbone consists of the amino group, the carboxyl group, and the alpha carbon, which is the central carbon atom that connects the two groups. The side chain, also known as the R group, is attached to the alpha carbon and varies in size, shape, polarity, and charge. The side chain determines the chemical behavior and interactions of amino acids with each other and with other molecules.

The 20 common amino acids can be further grouped into several categories based on the characteristics of their side chains, such as:

  • Non-polar: These amino acids have hydrophobic side chains that do not interact with water or other polar molecules. They tend to cluster together in the interior of proteins to avoid contact with the aqueous environment. Examples of non-polar amino acids are glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, proline, and phenylalanine.
  • Polar: These amino acids have hydrophilic side chains that can form hydrogen bonds with water or other polar molecules. They tend to be located on the surface of proteins or in the active sites of enzymes, where they can interact with other molecules. Examples of polar amino acids are serine, threonine, cysteine, tyrosine, asparagine, and glutamine.
  • Charged: These amino acids have side chains that carry a positive or negative charge at physiological pH. They are highly reactive and can form ionic bonds or electrostatic interactions with other charged molecules. They also play a role in maintaining the pH and the electrical potential of cells. Examples of positively charged amino acids are lysine, arginine, and histidine. Examples of negatively charged amino acids are aspartic acid and glutamic acid.
  • Aromatic: These amino acids have side chains that contain a benzene ring or a similar structure. They are usually non-polar, but can also have polar or charged groups attached to the ring. They are often involved in the stabilization of protein structures, the absorption of light, and the signaling of molecules. Examples of aromatic amino acids are phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan.

Types of Amino Acids

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, which are essential for many biological processes in living organisms. Amino acids can be classified into two types: essential and non-essential. Essential amino acids are those that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from the diet. Non-essential amino acids are those that can be produced by the body from other sources.

There are 20 common amino acids found in proteins, each with a unique side chain that determines the properties and functions of each amino acid. The 20 common amino acids can be further grouped into several categories based on the characteristics of their side chains, such as non-polar, polar, charged, and aromatic.

How Many Amino Acids Are There

There are hundreds of amino acids that exist in nature, but only 20 of them are commonly found in proteins. These 20 amino acids are also known as the standard or canonical amino acids. They are encoded by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the nucleotide sequences in DNA and RNA are translated into amino acid sequences in proteins.

However, there are also some amino acids that are not encoded by the genetic code, but are either modified from the standard amino acids or synthesized from other molecules. These amino acids are known as non-standard or non-canonical amino acids. They are usually involved in specific functions, such as signaling, regulation, or modification of proteins. Some examples of non-standard amino acids are selenocysteine, pyrrolysine, hydroxyproline, and gamma-carboxyglutamate.

Classification of Amino Acids

Amino acids can be classified into three groups based on their dietary requirement: essentialnon-essential, and conditionally essential.

  • Essential amino acids are those that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from the diet. There are nine essential amino acids for humans: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. These amino acids are essential for the growth, development, and maintenance of the body.
  • Non-essential amino acids are those that can be produced by the body from other sources, such as glucose, fatty acids, or other amino acids. There are 11 non-essential amino acids for humans: alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine. These amino acids are important for various metabolic processes, such as energy production, detoxification, and synthesis of other molecules.
  • Conditionally essential amino acids are those that are normally non-essential but become essential under certain conditions, such as stress, illness, injury, or aging. These amino acids are required for the optimal functioning of the body under these circumstances. Some examples of conditionally essential amino acids are arginine, cysteine, glutamine, proline, and tyrosine.

What Are Amino Acids in Chemistry

Amino acids are organic compounds that contain an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH). They have a general formula of R-CH(NH2)-COOH, where R is a variable side chain that determines the properties and functions of each amino acid.

Amino acids have several chemical properties that make them important for organic chemistry and biochemistry, such as:

  • Acid-base behavior: Amino acids can act as both acids and bases, depending on the pH of the solution. At low pH, the amino group is protonated and the carboxyl group is uncharged, giving the amino acid a positive charge. At high pH, the amino group is uncharged and the carboxyl group is deprotonated, giving the amino acid a negative charge. At a certain pH, known as the isoelectric point, the amino acid has no net charge and exists as a zwitterion, which is a molecule that has both positive and negative charges on different atoms.
  • Optical activity: Amino acids, except for glycine, have an asymmetric carbon atom, which is the central carbon atom that connects the two groups. This means that they can exist in two different forms, known as enantiomers, which are mirror images of each other. These enantiomers have the same chemical properties but differ in their ability to rotate the plane of polarized light. One enantiomer rotates the light to the right and is called the D form, while the other enantiomer rotates the light to the left, and is called the L form. In nature, only the L form of amino acids is found in proteins, while the D form is found in some bacteria, fungi, and peptides.
  • Peptide bond formation: Amino acids can link together by peptide bonds to form long chains called polypeptides, which fold into specific shapes to form proteins. A peptide bond is a covalent bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid, with the release of a water molecule. The peptide bond has a partial double bond character, which restricts the rotation around the bond and affects the conformation of the polypeptide chain.

Essential Amino Acids

Essential amino acids are those that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from the diet. There are nine essential amino acids for humans: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. These amino acids are essential for the growth, development, and maintenance of the body.

Essential amino acids have various roles in the body, such as:

  • Histidine: Histidine is involved in the synthesis of histamine, a neurotransmitter that regulates inflammation, immune response, and gastric acid secretion. Histidine also helps to maintain the pH balance of the blood and tissues.
  • Isoleucine: Isoleucine is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) that is important for muscle metabolism and energy production. Isoleucine also helps to regulate blood sugar levels and stimulate the release of growth hormone.
  • Leucine: Leucine is another BCAA that is essential for protein synthesis and muscle growth. Leucine also activates the mTOR pathway, which regulates cell growth, differentiation, and survival.
  • Lysine: Lysine is involved in the synthesis of collagen, elastin, and carnitine, which are important for the structure and function of the skin, bones, and blood vessels. Lysine also helps to prevent viral infections, such as herpes simplex, by inhibiting the replication of the virus.
  • Methionine: Methionine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is involved in the synthesis of cysteine, taurine, and glutathione, which are important for the detoxification and antioxidant defense of the body. Methionine also helps to regulate the expression of genes and the activity of enzymes.
  • Phenylalanine: Phenylalanine is a precursor for the synthesis of tyrosine, which is, in turn, a precursor for the synthesis of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, which are neurotransmitters that regulate mood, motivation, and stress response. Phenylalanine also helps to modulate the activity of opioid receptors, which are involved in pain perception and reward.
  • Threonine: Threonine is involved in the synthesis of glycine and serine, which are important for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, and phospholipids. Threonine also helps to maintain the integrity of the mucosal lining of the digestive tract and the immune system.
  • Tryptophan: Tryptophan is a precursor for the synthesis of serotonin, melatonin, and niacin, which are important for the regulation of sleep, mood, appetite, and energy metabolism. Tryptophan also helps to modulate the activity of serotonin receptors, which are involved in learning, memory, and social behavior.
  • Valine: Valine is the third BCAA that is essential for muscle metabolism and tissue repair. Valine also helps to regulate the immune system and the nervous system.

The dietary sources of essential amino acids are mainly animal products, such as meat, eggs, dairy, and fish. However, some plant foods, such as soy, quinoa, buckwheat, and hemp seeds, also contain all nine essential amino acids. The quality and quantity of essential amino acids in the diet can affect the health and performance of the body.

The effects of deficiency of essential amino acids can vary depending on the type and severity of the deficiency. Some common symptoms of essential amino acid deficiency are:

  • Protein-energy malnutrition: This is a condition that occurs when the intake of protein and energy is insufficient to meet the body’s needs. It can lead to weight loss, muscle wasting, edema, anemia, and impaired immunity. It can also affect the growth and development of children and increase the risk of infections and mortality.
  • Kwashiorkor: This is a form of protein-energy malnutrition that occurs when the intake of protein is severely low, but the intake of energy is adequate or high. It can lead to edema, fatty liver, skin lesions, hair loss, and mental retardation. It can also affect the synthesis and function of enzymes, hormones, and antibodies.
  • Marasmus: This is another form of protein-energy malnutrition that occurs when the intake of both protein and energy is severely low. It can lead to extreme weight loss, muscle atrophy, dehydration, and weakness. It can also affect the metabolism and function of organs, such as the brain, heart, and kidneys.
  • Phenylketonuria: This is a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of phenylalanine. It is caused by a mutation in the gene that encodes the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which converts phenylalanine to tyrosine. As a result, phenylalanine accumulates in the blood and tissues, and tyrosine becomes deficient. This can lead to neurological problems, such as seizures, intellectual disability, and behavioral disorders. It can also affect the synthesis and function of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and serotonin.
  • Maple syrup urine disease: This is another genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of BCAAs. It is caused by a mutation in the genes that encode the enzymes that break down BCAAs. As a result, BCAAs and their metabolites accumulate in the blood and urine, giving them a sweet smell. This can lead to neurological problems, such as coma, brain damage, and death. It can also affect the synthesis and function of proteins, such as hemoglobin and insulin.

What Are Amino Acids and Their Functions

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, which are essential for many biological processes in living organisms. Amino acids have various functions in the body, such as:

  • Biological functions: Amino acids are involved in various biological functions, such as catalyzing chemical reactions, transporting molecules, regulating gene expression, and providing structural support. For example, enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions, such as digestion, metabolism, and synthesis of biomolecules. Hemoglobin is a protein that transports oxygen in the blood. Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to DNA. Collagen is a protein that provides structural support to the skin, bones, and blood vessels.
  • Role in protein synthesis: Amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds to form long chains called polypeptides, which fold into specific shapes to form proteins. The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the nucleotide sequences in DNA and RNA are translated into amino acid sequences in proteins. The structure and function of proteins depend on the sequence and arrangement of amino acids in the polypeptide chain.
  • Impact on metabolism and cell function: Amino acids are involved in the breakdown and synthesis of various molecules, such as carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. They also serve as precursors for other important biomolecules, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and coenzymes. The metabolism and function of cells depend on the availability and balance of amino acids in the body.

Benefits of Amino Acids

Amino acids have various benefits for the health and performance of the body, such as:

  • Muscle development and repair: Amino acids are essential for the synthesis and maintenance of muscle tissue, which is important for strength, endurance, and recovery. Amino acids, especially BCAAs, can stimulate muscle protein synthesis, reduce muscle protein breakdown, and enhance muscle recovery after exercise. Amino acids can also prevent muscle fatigue and soreness, and improve muscle function and performance.
  • Cognitive function: Amino acids are essential for the synthesis and function of neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals between neurons and other cells in the brain and the nervous system. Amino acids, especially tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, can modulate the levels and activity of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are important for mood, motivation, memory, and learning. Amino acids can also improve cognitive function and performance, such as attention, concentration, and reaction time.
  • Immune system support: Amino acids are essential for the production and function of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells, which are important for the defense against pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. Amino acids, especially glutamine, cysteine, and arginine, can enhance the immune response and the inflammatory response, and modulate the activity of cytokines, which are molecules that regulate the communication and coordination of immune cells. Amino acids can also prevent or reduce the risk of infections and diseases, such as colds, flu, and cancer.

Amino Acids in Food Sources

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, which are essential for many biological processes in living organisms. Amino acids can be classified into two types: essential and non-essential. Essential amino acids are those that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from the diet. Non-essential amino acids are those that can be produced by the body from other sources.

The dietary sources of amino acids are mainly animal products and plant products, which have different advantages and disadvantages in terms of quality and quantity of amino acids.

Animal-Based Sources

Animal-based sources of amino acids are foods that come from animals, such as meat, eggs, dairy, and fish. These foods are considered to be complete sources of protein, meaning that they contain all nine essential amino acids in adequate amounts and proportions. Animal-based sources of amino acids also have a high biological value, meaning that they are easily digested and absorbed by the body.

Some of the benefits of animal-based sources of amino acids are:

  • They provide high-quality protein that supports muscle growth and repair, immune function, and enzyme activity.
  • They provide other nutrients, such as iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12, and omega-3 fatty acids, that are important for health and well-being.
  • They provide a variety of flavors and textures that can enhance the enjoyment and satisfaction of eating.

Some of the drawbacks of animal-based sources of amino acids are:

  • They can be high in saturated fat, cholesterol, and calories, which can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes.
  • They can contain hormones, antibiotics, and contaminants, such as pesticides, heavy metals, and dioxins, that can have negative effects on health and the environment.
  • They can cause ethical and environmental concerns, such as animal welfare, animal rights, and greenhouse gas emissions.

Plant-Based Sources

Plant-based sources of amino acids are foods that come from plants, such as grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, and vegetables. These foods are considered to be incomplete sources of protein, meaning that they lack one or more essential amino acids or have them in insufficient amounts or proportions. Plant-based sources of amino acids also have a lower biological value, meaning that they are less efficiently digested and absorbed by the body.

Some of the benefits of plant-based sources of amino acids are:

  • They provide high-fiber carbohydrates that support digestion, blood sugar regulation, and weight management.
  • They provide antioxidants, phytochemicals, and micronutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, and polyphenols, that have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-aging effects.
  • They provide a lower environmental impact, as they require less water, land, and energy to produce and emit less greenhouse gases.

Some of the drawbacks of plant-based sources of amino acids are:

  • They require careful planning and combination to ensure adequate intake and balance of essential amino acids.
  • They can contain anti-nutrients, such as phytates, lectins, and oxalates, that can interfere with the absorption of minerals and amino acids.
  • They can cause allergic reactions, intolerances, or sensitivities in some people, such as gluten, soy, or nuts.
Amino Acids
Amino Acids

Dietary Recommendations

The dietary recommendations for amino acid intake vary depending on the age, sex, health status, and activity level of the individual. However, some general guidelines are:

  • The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein for adults is 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight per day, which translates to about 56 grams for men and 46 grams for women. However, this amount may vary depending on the individual’s needs and goals, such as weight loss, muscle gain, or disease prevention.
  • The RDA for essential amino acids for adults is about 10 to 12 grams per day, which can be met by consuming a variety of animal-based and plant-based sources of protein. However, some essential amino acids may require higher intake for optimal health and performance, such as leucine, which is important for muscle protein synthesis and recovery.
  • The RDA for non-essential amino acids for adults is not established, as they can be synthesized by the body from other sources. However, some non-essential amino acids may have beneficial effects on health and performance, such as glutamine, which is important for immune function and intestinal health.

Conclusion

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, which are essential for many biological processes in living organisms. Amino acids can be classified into two types: essential and non-essential. Essential amino acids are those that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from the diet. Non-essential amino acids are those that can be produced by the body from other sources.

Amino acids have various functions and benefits for the health and performance of the body, such as:

  • They are involved in various biological functions, such as catalyzing chemical reactions, transporting molecules, regulating gene expression, and providing structural support.
  • They play a role in protein synthesis, which is important for the structure and function of proteins, such as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies.
  • They impact metabolism and cell function, which is important for the breakdown and synthesis of various molecules, such as carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids.
  • They support muscle development and repair, which is important for strength, endurance, and recovery.
  • They enhance cognitive function, which is important for mood, motivation, memory, and learning.
  • They boost immune system support, which is important for the defense against pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

The dietary sources of amino acids are mainly animal products and plant products, which have different advantages and disadvantages in terms of quality and quantity of amino acids. Animal-based sources of amino acids are complete sources of protein that have a high biological value, but they can also be high in fat, cholesterol, and calories, and can cause ethical and environmental concerns. Plant-based sources of amino acids are incomplete sources of protein that have a low biological value, but they can also provide high-fiber carbohydrates, antioxidants, and micronutrients, and have a lower environmental impact.

The dietary recommendations for amino acid intake vary depending on the individual’s needs and goals, but some general guidelines are to consume 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day, 10 to 12 grams of essential amino acids per day, and a variety of animal-based and plant-based sources of protein.

FAQ

01. Why are amino acids amphoteric?

Amino acids are amphoteric because they can act as both acids and bases, depending on the pH of the solution. At low pH, the amino group is protonated and the carboxyl group is uncharged, giving the amino acid a positive charge. At high pH, the amino group is uncharged and the carboxyl group is deprotonated, giving the amino acid a negative charge. At a certain pH, known as the isoelectric point, the amino acid has no net charge and exists as a zwitterion, which is a molecule that has both positive and negative charges on different atoms.

02. Why are amino acids called amino acids?

Amino acids are called amino acids because they contain an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH), which are the functional groups of acids and amines, respectively. The term amino acid was coined by the French chemist Jean-Baptiste Dumas in 1848.

03. How many amino acids?

There are hundreds of amino acids that exist in nature, but only 20 of them are commonly found in proteins. These 20 amino acids are also known as the standard or canonical amino acids. They are encoded by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the nucleotide sequences in DNA and RNA are translated into amino acid sequences in proteins.

04. What are the 20 amino acids?

The 20 common amino acids found in proteins are alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine. Each amino acid has a unique side chain that determines its properties and functions.

05. What are 3 types of amino acids?

The 20 common amino acids can be grouped into several categories based on the characteristics of their side chains, such as non-polar, polar, charged, and aromatic. Three examples of each type are:

  • Non-polar: glycine, alanine, valine
  • Polar: serine, threonine, cysteine
  • Charged: aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine
  • Aromatic: phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan
06. What are two types of amino acids?

Two types of amino acids are essential and non-essential. Essential amino acids are those that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from the diet. Non-essential amino acids are those that can be produced by the body from other sources.

07. What are the 9 essential amino acids?

The 9 essential amino acids for humans are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. These amino acids are essential for the growth, development, and maintenance of the body.

08. What is an amino acid simple definition?

An amino acid is a simple organic compound that contains an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH). It has a general formula of R-CH(NH2)-COOH, where R is a variable side chain that determines the properties and functions of each amino acid. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, which are essential for many biological processes in living organisms.

09. Which is called amino acid?

The term amino acid can refer to any organic compound that contains an amino group and a carboxyl group, but it is usually used to refer to the 20 common amino acids found in proteins. However, there are also some amino acids that are not encoded by the genetic code, but are either modified from the standard amino acids or synthesized from other molecules. These amino acids are known as non-standard or non-canonical amino acids. They are usually involved in specific functions, such as signaling, regulation, or modification of proteins. Some examples of non-standard amino acids are selenocysteine, pyrrolysine, hydroxyproline, and gamma-carboxyglutamate.

10. What are the 4 main amino acids?

There is no definitive answer to what are the 4 main amino acids, as different amino acids have different roles and importance in the body. However, one possible way to answer this question is to consider the four amino acids that are most abundant in human proteins, which are: leucine, glutamic acid, alanine, and lysine. These amino acids account for about 35% of the total amino acid content in human proteins, according to this source.

11. What are amino acids Class 7?

Amino acids are organic compounds that contain an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH). They are the basic units of proteins, which are essential for many biological processes in living organisms. Amino acids can be classified into two types: essential and non-essential. Essential amino acids are those that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from the diet. Non-essential amino acids are those that can be produced by the body from other sources. This is the definition of amino acids for Class 7 students, according to this source.

12. What are amino acids Class 12?

Amino acids are organic compounds that contain an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH). They have a general formula of R-CH(NH2)-COOH, where R is a variable side chain that determines the properties and functions of each amino acid. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, which are essential for many biological processes in living organisms. Amino acids can be classified into three groups based on their dietary requirement: essential, non-essential, and conditionally essential. Essential amino acids are those that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from the diet. Non-essential amino acids are those that can be produced by the body from other sources. Conditionally essential amino acids are those that are normally non-essential, but become essential under certain conditions, such as stress, illness, injury, or aging. This is the definition of amino acids for Class 12 students, according to this source.

13. What are basic amino acids Class 12?

Basic amino acids are those that have side chains that carry a positive charge at physiological pH. They are highly reactive and can form ionic bonds or electrostatic interactions with other charged molecules. They also play a role in maintaining the pH and the electrical potential of cells. The three basic amino acids found in proteins are lysine, arginine, and histidine. Lysine has a simple aliphatic side chain with four methylene groups and an amino group. Arginine has a complex side chain with three methylene groups, a guanidino group, and a terminal amino group. Histidine has an aromatic side chain with an imidazole ring and a terminal amino group. This is the definition of basic amino acids for Class 12 students, according to this source.

14. What is amino acids class 11?

Amino acids are organic compounds that contain an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH). They have a general formula of R-CH(NH2)-COOH, where R is a variable side chain that determines the properties and functions of each amino acid. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, which are essential for many biological processes in living organisms. Amino acids can be classified into two types: essential and non-essential. Essential amino acids are those that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from the diet. Non-essential amino acids are those that can be produced by the body from other sources. This is the definition of amino acids for Class 11 students, according to this source.

15. What are basic amino acids Class 11?

Basic amino acids are those that have side chains that carry a positive charge at physiological pH. They are highly reactive and can form ionic bonds or electrostatic interactions with other charged molecules. They also play a role in maintaining the pH and the electrical potential of cells. The three basic amino acids found in proteins are lysine, arginine, and histidine. Lysine has a simple aliphatic side chain with four methylene groups and an amino group. Arginine has a complex side chain with three methylene groups, a guanidino group, and a terminal amino group. Histidine has an aromatic side chain with an imidazole ring and a terminal amino group. This is the definition of basic amino acids for Class 11 students, according to [this source].

16. What are amino acids classified as Class 11?

Amino acids can be classified into several categories based on the characteristics of their side chains, such as non-polar, polar, charged, and aromatic. Non-polar amino acids have hydrophobic side chains that do not interact with water or other polar molecules. They tend to cluster together in the interior of proteins to avoid contact with the aqueous environment. Polar amino acids have hydrophilic side chains that can form hydrogen bonds with water or other polar molecules. They tend to be located on the surface of proteins or in the active sites of enzymes, where they can interact with other molecules. Charged amino acids have side chains that carry a positive or negative charge at physiological pH. They are highly reactive and can form ionic bonds or electrostatic interactions with other charged molecules. They also play a role in maintaining the pH and the electrical potential of cells. Aromatic amino acids have side chains that contain a benzene ring or a similar structure. They are usually non-polar, but can also have polar or charged groups attached to the ring. They are often involved in the stabilization of protein structures, the absorption of light, and the signaling of molecules. This is the classification of amino acids based on their side chains for Class 11 students, according to [this source].

*Image credits- freepik*

Important Notice:

The information provided on “health life ai” is intended for informational purposes only. While we have made efforts to ensure the accuracy and authenticity of the information presented, we cannot guarantee its absolute correctness or completeness. Before applying any of the strategies or tips, please consult a professional medical adviser.

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